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Efficacy of pinaverium bromide in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Efficacy of pinaverium bromide in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis Abstract Background: Spasmolytic agents are an attractive first line treatment option for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Pinaverium bromide (pinaverium) has antispasmodic effects on gastrointestinal smooth muscle and can relieve major IBS symptoms, but an up-to-date meta-analysis comparing the efficacy […]

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Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management of Ascites, Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis and Hepatorenal Syndrome: 2021 Practice Guidance by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases

Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management of Ascites, Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis and Hepatorenal Syndrome: 2021 Practice Guidance by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Purpose and Scope of the Guidance This is a comprehensive guidance on the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of ascites and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) in patients with chronic liver disease from […]

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Are Fourth-Year Medical Students as Prepared to Manage Unstable Patients as They Are to Manage Stable Patients?

Are Fourth-Year Medical Students as Prepared to Manage Unstable Patients as They Are to Manage Stable Patients? Abstract Purpose To evaluate the fourth-year medical student’s assessment and management of an unstable patient. Method The authors compared the performance of fourth-year medical students in a clinical performance examination (CPX) across a spectrum of simulated stable conditions […]

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The relation of 12 lead ECG to the cardiac anatomy: The normal CineECG

The relation of 12 lead ECG to the cardiac anatomy: The normal CineECG Background The interpretation of the 12‑lead ECG is notoriously difficult and requires experts to distinguish normal from abnormal ECG waveforms. ECG waveforms depend on body build and electrode positions, both often different in males and females. To relate the ECG waveforms to cardiac anatomical […]

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Systemic lupus erythematosus: a clinical update

Systemic lupus erythematosus: a clinical update Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disease known for its complexity and heterogeneity. Striking diversity can be observed between individual patients, in terms of clinical manifestations, serological abnormalities, disease progression and response to therapy. Furthermore, dysfunction of a broad range of immune pathways underlies disease development […]

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Blood urea nitrogen, blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio and incident stroke: The Dongfeng-Tongji cohort

Highlights Both lower and higher levels of BUN were associated with excess risks of total and ischemic stroke independent of eGFR. Extreme BUN levels, even within the clinically normal range, may confer potential risks of stroke previously unidentified. A U-shaped relationship was identified between BUN/Cr and total stroke and its subtypes. Abstract Background and aims […]

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Imaging of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection From Head to Toe: A Primer for the Radiologist

Abstract Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease has rapidly spread around the world after initial identification in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Most common presentation is mild or asymptomatic disease, followed by pneumonia, and rarely- multiorgan failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Knowledge about the pathophysiology, imaging and treatment of this novel virus is rapidly evolving due to ongoing worldwide research. Most […]

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Astegolimab (anti-ST2) efficacy and safety in adults with severe asthma: A randomized clinical trial

Background The IL-33/ST2 pathway is linked with asthma susceptibility. Inhaled allergens, pollutants, and respiratory viruses, which trigger asthma exacerbations, induce release of IL-33, an epithelial-derived “alarmin.” Astegolimab, a human IgG2 mAb, selectively inhibits the IL-33 receptor, ST2. Approved biologic therapies for severe asthma mainly benefit patients with elevated blood eosinophils (type 2-high), but limited options are […]

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Kidney damage from nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs—Myth or truth? Review of selected literature

Abstract Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely available drugs with anti‐inflammatory and analgesic properties. Their mechanism of action is associated with the enzymes of the arachidonic acid cycle (cyclooxygenases: COX‐1 and COX‐2). The cyclooxygenase pathway results in the formation of prostanoids (prostaglandins [PGs], prostacyclins, and thromboxanes). It affects various structures of the human body, including […]

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Portal Hypertension and Ascites: Patient-and Population-centered Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF)

Abstract Portal hypertension and ascites are two crucial events in the natural history of liver cirrhosis, whose appearance marks a downward shift in the prognosis of the disease. Over the years, several international and national societies have issued clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of portal hypertension and ascites. The present document addresses […]

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