Archive for El R3

The management of acute and chronic hyponatraemia

The management of acute and chronic hyponatraemia Abstract Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality encountered in clinical practice; despite this, the work-up and management of hyponatraemia remain suboptimal and varies among different specialist groups. The majority of data comparing hyponatraemia treatments have been observational, up until recently. The past two years have seen the […]

Read More

Current applications and limitations of European guidelines on blood pressure measurement: implications for clinical practice

Current applications and limitations of European guidelines on blood pressure measurement: implications for clinical practice  Abstract Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of major CV outcomes, including myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, renal disease and death due to CV causes. Effective control of […]

Read More

Pharmacotherapy to delay the progression of diabetic kidney disease in people with type 2 diabetes: past, present and future

Pharmacotherapy to delay the progression of diabetic kidney disease in people with type 2 diabetes: past, present and future Abstract Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with diabetes, and is one of the most important causes of end stage renal disease worldwide. In order to reduce […]

Read More

Management of hypertensive emergencies: a practical approach

Management of hypertensive emergencies: a practical approach Abstract Background: Acute increases of high blood pressure values, usually described as ‘hypertensive crises’, ‘hypertensive urgencies’ or ‘hypertensive emergencies’, are common causes of patients’ presentation to emergency departments. Owing to the lack of ad hoc randomized clinical trials, current recommendations/suggestions for treatment of these patients are not evidenced-based and, […]

Read More

SGLT-2 inhibitors for treatment of heart failure in patients with and without type 2 diabetes: A practical approach for routine clinical practice

SGLT-2 inhibitors for treatment of heart failure in patients with and without type 2 diabetes: A practical approach for routine clinical practice Highlights SGLT-2i are a promising class of agents for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. An algorithm is provided for prescribing SGLT-2i using a multidisciplinary approach. Tips to prevent common adverse effects with […]

Read More

Management of the first stage of convulsive status epilepticus in adults: a systematic review of current randomised evidence

Management of the first stage of convulsive status epilepticus in adults: a systematic review of current randomised evidence Abstract Background Convulsive status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy and requires urgent treatment. We synthesised the current evidence on first-line treatments for controlling seizures in adults with convulsive status epilepticus before, or at, arrival […]

Read More

Management of traumatic brain injury: a narrative review of current evidence

Management of traumatic brain injury: a narrative review of current evidence Summary Globally, approximately 70 million people sustain traumatic brain injury each year and this can have significant physical, psychosocial and economic consequences for patients, their families and society. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians with a summary of recent studies of […]

Read More

Management of status epilepticus: a narrative review

Management of status epilepticus: a narrative review SummaryStatus epilepticus causes prolonged or repetitive seizures that, if left untreated, can lead to neuronal injury, severe disability, coma and death in paediatric and adult populations. While convulsive status epilepticus can be diagnosed using clinical features alone, non-convulsive status epilepticus requires confirmation by electroencephalogram. Early seizure control remains […]

Read More

Arterial-renal Syndrome in Patients with ESRD, a New Disease Paradigm

Arterial-renal Syndrome in Patients with ESRD, a New Disease Paradigm Abstract Background Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often present with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Conditions of compromised cardiovascular health such as atrial fibrillation (AFIB) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) may alter biomarker levels in a way that reflects worsening ESRD. This study […]

Read More

The Role of the Nephrologist in Management of Poisoning and Intoxication: Core Curriculum 2022

The Role of the Nephrologist in Management of Poisoning and Intoxication: Core Curriculum 2022 Poisoning is a common problem in the United States. Acid-base disturbances, electrolyte derangements, or acute kidney injury result from severe poisoning from toxic alcohols, salicylates, metformin, and acetaminophen. Lithium is highly sensitive to small changes in kidney function. These poisonings and […]

Read More